Adults should not get upset by the child’s reactions but trust their instincts and hold the child close, interpret the child’s signals and respond to the best of their ability. If the child is restless, the adult supports the child through his or her strong experiences. Thus the child’s ability to tolerate stress, confidence in the adult and his or her ability to survive are enhanced. A child’s restless behaviour may be due to, for instance, tiredness or stomach ache. Regardless of the reason of the child’s reaction, the adult has to show the child, without exception, that the child is appreciated and recognised. If the parent finds that task heavy or needs advice and support for interacting with the child, help and support is available in many places.


The baby bonds with her parents and others in her close circle in the first few years of her life. Attachment and bonding is not necessarily identical, but can balance one another. Attachment and bonding is enhanced by the parents’ sensitive and reliable responses to their child’s emotional and physical needs.

  • The child evaluates the signals in her environment and feels either secure or insecure, respectively.
  • In case of a safe and secure bond, a child combines information and upgrades assumptions to promote the development of feelings of safety and security, self-esteem, confidence and independence.
  • The better the parent’s reflective ability, the safer and more secure the bonding. Reflective ability means a parent’s ability to correctly reflect the baby’s moods and experiences.

References and other links